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United States v. Glover

United States Court of Appeals, Eighth Circuit

June 21, 2018

United States of America Plaintiff- Appellee
v.
Lawrence Curtis Glover Defendant-Appellant

          Submitted: December 11, 2017

          Appeal from United States District Court for the Northern District of Iowa - Cedar Rapids

          Before WOLLMAN, LOKEN, and MELLOY, Circuit Judges.

          MELLOY, Circuit Judge.

         Defendant-Appellant Lawrence Glover appeals a special condition of supervised release imposed as part of a revocation sentence. The special condition prohibits Glover from having contact with his fiancée, Myesha Watkins, who is the mother of his child. We vacate the special condition.

          I.

         In September 2011, Glover was sentenced to 71 months' imprisonment and 5 years' supervised release for distributing cocaine base. The district court later reduced his term of imprisonment to 60 months. In November 2015, he began serving his term of supervised release. In October 2016, he was arrested for unlawfully possessing marijuana packaged for delivery and interfering with official acts.

         Based in part on these acts, the district court found him in violation of the terms of his supervised release. The district court imposed a revocation sentence of 8 months' imprisonment and 4 years' supervised release, with the new special condition that he not have contact with Watkins. We recount the details of events leading to his 2016 arrest as relevant to the challenged condition of supervised release.

         A Cedar Rapids police officer noticed a van without license plates and began pursuit. A car between the officer and the van appeared to be trailing the van, but turned onto a different street, and the officer continued following the van. After the van pulled into a driveway, the officer pulled in directly behind the van, blocking the driveway.

         Upon approaching the van on foot, the officer and her partner smelled raw marijuana. Another officer arrived and also smelled raw marijuana. Eventually, officers asked Glover to exit his van, and they attempted to place him in the back of a squad car. When officers opened the door to the squad car, however, Glover escaped on foot.

         Other officers captured Glover several blocks away. Upon searching the van, officers discovered a mason jar holding a small quantity of marijuana packaged in seven bags worth an estimated total of $140. In addition, a later search of his home revealed $3, 800 in bundled cash, identification materials belonging to another person, evidence showing that he had repeatedly traveled outside the district in violation of his supervised release, a baggie fragment containing three Lorazepam tablets not prescribed to him, and an abundance of possibly stolen clothes still bearing store tags. Glover shared the home with Watkins.

         At Glover's revocation hearing, an officer testified that the car that had initially been between the squad car and the van was a "trailing car." According to the officer, a trailing car will often follow a lead car carrying drugs, guns, or cash so that the trailing car can prevent police from apprehending the lead car. Typically, the trailing car will physically block the police, perform a blatant traffic violation, or employ other means to draw police away.

         The same officer testified that, during a recorded phone call after Glover's arrest, Glover and Watkins discussed the driver of the trailing vehicle. Neither the recording of the phone call nor a transcript of the recording were introduced at the hearing. The officer testified about the call as follows:

Q. And can you tell me what you heard during that conversation with the defendant ...

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