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United States of America v. Kevin Vincent Price

August 12, 2011

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, PLAINTIFF - APPELLEE,
v.
KEVIN VINCENT PRICE, DEFENDANT - APPELLANT.



Appeal from the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Missouri.

The opinion of the court was delivered by: Murphy, Circuit Judge.

Submitted: June 16, 2011

Before MURPHY and SMITH, Circuit Judges, and SCHREIER,*fn1 District Judge.

Kevin Vincent Price pled guilty to being a felon in possession of a firearm after police found semiautomatic weapons in his home while executing a search warrant. The district court*fn2 sentenced Price to 37 months in prison, the lowest recommended sentence under the United States Sentencing Guidelines (U.S.S.G.), and two years of supervised release. Price appeals, arguing that the district court improperly weighed certain sentencing factors and that his sentence was unreasonable. We affirm.

In February 2010, police officers searched Price's home under a valid search warrant and found a stolen semiautomatic pistol under his mattress and a semiautomatic rifle with a loaded magazine leaning against the bedroom wall. Another thirty round magazine was taped to the one already inserted in the rifle. Photographs of Price and others displaying gang signs were also discovered. Price admitted that the weapons belonged to him.

Pursuant to a plea agreement that referenced both the pistol and the rifle in a single count, Price pled guilty to being a felon in possession of a firearm in violation of 18 U.S.C. § 922(g)(1). The plea agreement foresaw a base offense level of at least 20 and reserved Price's right to seek a downward departure. While a felon in possession of most firearms would have a base offense level of 14, see U.S.S.G. § 2K2.1(a)(6), Price's base offense level was higher under U.S.S.G. § 2K2.1(a)(4)(B) since the semiautomatic rifle in his bedroom was capable of accepting a large capacity magazine and he had previously been convicted of a crime that was punishable by over one year of imprisonment. See U.S.S.G. § 2K2.1 cmt. nn.2 & 3.

At sentencing the district court adopted the presentence investigation report's recommended guideline range of 37--46 months. Price requested a downward departure to 24 months, arguing that a sentencing enhancement under § 2K2.1(a)(4)(B) was unreasonable. Counsel for Price argued that the rifle found in his bedroom was likely a "showpiece" not intended for criminal use. He also presented data in support of his argument that semiautomatic firearms capable of accepting large capacity magazines do not pose an increased risk to public safety because more people are killed every year in the United States by handguns.

The government requested a sentence at the high end of the guideline range because Price had admitted to possessing a weapon with a large capacity magazine "for his protection" and he had gang affiliations. A special agent with the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives testified that with a full magazine taped to one already loaded in the rifle Price could have immediately reloaded his weapon. The agent also identified several individuals in the photographs found in Price's room as having known gang associations or currently serving federal sentences for drug or firearm offenses.

After analyzing the factors set out in 18 U.S.C. § 3553(a), the district court determined that the 37 to 46 month guideline range was reasonable. It specifically noted Price's "circumstances and background," "issues of deterrence," and the seriousness of his offense. The district court did not discuss Price's alleged gang involvement. While expressing some skepticism that he possessed the semiautomatic rifle for a benign purpose, the district court stated that it would make no finding about its potential use but would rely on the statutory factors set by Congress in reaching Price's sentence. It subsequently sentenced Price to 37 months.

On appeal Price contends that the district court erred procedurally by improperly relying on his purpose for owning the rifle, considering his alleged gang affiliation which had not been proven by a preponderance of the evidence, and failing to address his data on the relative number of deaths resulting from the use of handguns as opposed to the type of semiautomatic weapon referenced in U.S.S.G. § 2K2.1(a)(4)(B). Price also argues that the district court imposed a substantively unreasonable sentence because it had not departed downward.

In reviewing sentences imposed by a district court we check first for procedural error, such as improperly calculating the guideline range, ignoring the statutory sentencing factors, basing a sentence on clearly erroneous facts, or failing to explain the sentence adequately. United States v. Feemster, 572 F.3d 455, 461 (8th Cir. 2009)(en banc). We next consider the substantive reasonableness of the sentence, id., and a sentence within the guideline range is presumed reasonable. United States v. Keating, 579 F.3d 891, 894 (8th Cir. 2009).

We find no procedural error in this case. Price's argument that the district court erroneously relied on his purpose for possessing the semiautomatic rifle lacks merit. A district court is entitled to consider the characteristics of a weapon because such an inquiry is unquestionably relevant to "the nature and circumstances of the offense."

18 U.S.C. § 3553(a)(1). Price cites no authority limiting a sentencing court's ability to consider the potential uses of such a firearm by a felon. In any event the district court made clear Price's potential use of the semiautomatic rifle was "neither here nor there," because its duty was to impose a reasonable sentence in light of all the § 3553(a) factors.

Nor did the district court erroneously rely on Price's alleged gang affiliation in crafting its sentence. There is no indication that the district court gave any weight at all to Price's alleged gang affiliation. It did not even mention a potential enhancement for gang activity under U.S.S.G. ยง 5K2.18, and it sentenced Price to the shortest term in the applicable guideline range. While the district court said that it had considered Price's "circumstances and background," that does not mean that ...


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