Appeal from the United States District Court for the District of Minnesota.
The opinion of the court was delivered by: Murphy, Circuit Judge.
Submitted: November 17, 2009
Before MURPHY, SMITH, and BENTON, Circuit Judges.
Plaintiff George McCollins represented a putative West Virginia class in this multidistrict litigation against the defendants who manufactured and produced Baycol, a prescription cholesterol lowering medication. His was one of thousands of similar Baycol lawsuits consolidated for pretrial proceedings in the district court, In re Baycol Prods. Litig., MDL No. 1431. After the presiding judge*fn1 denied certification of the class McCollins sought to represent, two other former Baycol users from West Virginia, Keith Smith and Shirley Sperlazza, sought to certify a class in West Virginia state court. Defendant Bayer Corporation brought a motion in this case for the district court to enjoin Smith and Sperlazza from relitigating in state court the certification of a West Virginia class. Smith and Sperlazza responded by special appearance in opposition to the motion for injunctive relief. The district court granted the injunction, and respondents appeal. We affirm.
Baycol was distributed from 1997 until August 2001, when the drug was withdrawn from the market after its use was linked to thirty one deaths in the United States. In re Baycol Prods. Litig., 532 F.Supp.2d 1029, 1035 (D.Minn. 2007). Tens of thousands of former Baycol users have filed suit since the drug was withdrawn. The Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation, see 28 U.S.C. § 1407, consolidated the federal cases in the district court for pretrial proceedings.
In August 2001, McCollins and two others initiated their putative class action in West Virginia state court. Defendants removed the case to federal court on diversity grounds, and it was subsequently transferred to the multidistrict court. By 2008 McCollins was the only remaining class representative. He had not experienced the side effect that led to Baycol's withdrawal from the market; undisputed record evidence showed that he had physically benefitted from the drug. Rather than suing for physical damages, he sought refunds for economic loss caused by the defendants' breach of warranties and violation of the West Virginia Consumer Credit and Protection Act (WVCCPA), W.Va. Code § 46A-6-101.
Respondents Smith and Sperlazza, purporting to represent a similar class with similar allegations, brought their case in West Virginia state court in September 2001. Since the one year statute of limitations on removal had run by the time complete diversity existed, see 28 U.S.C. § 1446, respondents remained in state court. Had their case been filed a few years later, defendants could have removed it pursuant to the Class Action Fairness Act of 2005, Pub. L. No. 109-2, 119 Stat. 4 (codified in scattered sections of 28 U.S.C.).
The multidistrict (MDL) district court has issued over 160 pretrial orders and engaged in extensive efforts to coordinate its proceedings with state courts handling Baycol cases. In 2002, the Plaintiffs' Steering Committee filed a Master Class Action Complaint and subsequently moved for certification of, among other classes, a nationwide refund class. In re Baycol Prods. Litig., 218 F.R.D. 197, 202 (D.Minn. 2003). The district court denied the motion, concluding that since such plaintiffs "would have to demonstrate that they were either injured by Baycol, or that Baycol did not provide them any health benefits[,]" common issues did not predominate pursuant to Fed.R.Civ.P. 23(b)(3) and (c)(4). Id. at 213-14. A further barrier to class certification, the district court concluded, was the lack of uniformity among state tort laws governing unjust enrichment and breach of warranty. Id. at 214.
Defendants subsequently moved the district court to deny class certification of the West Virginia economic class proposed by McCollins,*fn2 and to enter summary judgment against McCollins on his individual claims. The district court granted the defendants' motions on August 25, 2008, after concluding that nothing in West Virginia law would alter its prior analysis that individual issues of fact predominate with regard to economic loss claims. In re Baycol Prods. Litig., McCollins v. Bayer Corp., et al., MDL No. 1431, No. 02-0199, slip op. at 11-12 (D. Minn. Aug. 25, 2008) (Order Denying Certification). Holding that under the WVCCPA, McCollins would need to "demonstrate Baycol was something other than what he bargained for" and that McCollins could not meet this burden since Baycol in fact lowered his cholesterol and resulted in no side effects, id. at 18, the court also granted summary judgment to the defendants on his individual claims. Id. at 19. No part of the order was appealed.
Shortly after the deadline expired to appeal the order denying certification, respondents moved for certification of a West Virginia economic loss class in state court. Bayer moved the district court to enjoin respondents, as absent putative class members in this case, from relitigating the previous decision denying certification of a West Virginia economic loss class. Respondents specially appeared before the district court in this case to object to the motion for an injunction. The district court granted an injunction, and respondents filed this appeal.
Although the Anti-Injunction Act generally prohibits federal courts from interfering in state proceedings, it permits injunctions necessary to "protect or effectuate its judgments." 28 U.S.C. § 2283; see also All Writs Act, 28 U.S.C. § 1651 (providing statutory authority to issue injunction when justified). We review de novo the district court's determination that the Act's "relitigation exception" applies, Jones v. St. Paul Cos., Inc., 495 F.3d 888, 890 (8th Cir. 2007), and that it had personal jurisdiction over respondents, Dever v. Hentzen Coatings, Inc., 380 F.3d 1070, 1072 (8th Cir. 2004).
"Because of the sensitive nature of federal interference with state court litigation," the relitigation exception "must be narrowly construed." Jones, 495 F.3d at 891. The district court's injunction was proper if collateral estoppel would bar respondents from seeking certification of a West Virginia economic loss class in state court. See Chick Kam Choo v. Exxon Corp., 486 U.S. 140, 147 (1988) ...